The past perfect (or pluperfect) tense

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The past perfect (or pluperfect) tense

过去完成时用had(have的过去式)+过去分词构成。用来表达在另一个动作前发生的动作,而这两个动作都在过去发生。主要用来区分过去发生动作的先后顺序:
When he had finished his trip around the world, Bruno started the San Francisco-based Delavigne Corporation. 当他完成了他的环球旅行之后,布鲁诺在旧金山建立了德拉维尼公司。
I had finished my work before my parents went to bed. 在我父母上床睡觉之前,我已经完成了我的工作。
过去完成时也可以使用其进行时形式(had been doing sthg),用来表达在过去某个特定时间点上没有完成的动作:
Before his car accident, Bruno had been working hard on creating new perfumes. 在他发生车祸之前,布鲁诺一直在为创造新香水而努力工作。
I had been studying surgery for ten years when I decided to become a clown. 当我决定成为一名小丑时,我已经学习外科十年了。
Until 1990, the president had been working in the dairy industry. 直到1990年,总统一直在奶制品企业工作。
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注意: 我们经常看到过去完成进行时形式使用FOR:
When Bruno got back to the States, he had been traveling for 7 years. 当布鲁诺回到美国时,他已经旅行了7年了。

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