by (the end of the week): before, no later than (the end of the week)
The results will be announced by Monday. It will probably be Saturday but it could be Sunday.
Cashman should be here by now, he said he'd be here before 3 PM and it's now 3.30.
By the time (you read this, I will be gone): When (you read this, I will be gone), Before (you have read this, I will have gone)
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