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While (I was sleeping...): When, during the time that, as (I was sleeping...)
In British English, whilst is often used in place of "while".

He shouted at his wife while I was still in the room, I didn't know what to say.
Can you wait for me while I get ready?

While (on the building site, be very careful): When, if you are (on the building site, be very careful)

(to wait for) a while: (to wait for) a period of time, a moment
It's been a while since I last heard from you, how have you been?

Pronunciation examples
UK: Whilst you're up, would you mind making me a cup of tea?
US: I cut my chin while shaving this morning.

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