Irregular past participles: chiuso (closed), preso (taken), deciso (decided)

The verbs chiudere (to close), prendere (to take, to get), decidere (to decide) and spendere (to spend) all have irregular past participles. They are all similar to each other, though, and all end in -so:

  • Chiudere: chiuso
  • Prendere: preso
  • Decidere: deciso
  • Spendere: speso

We use these past participles the same way we use regular past participles, following the same rules. 

Hai chiuso la porta?

Have you closed the door?

Li hai presi i mandarini al supermercato?

Did you get them – the mandarins at the supermarket?

Durante la riunione online, non abbiamo deciso nulla.

We didn't decide anything in the online meeting.

Marco ha speso tutti i suoi soldi in vacanza

Marco spent all his money while on vacation.


  • other verbs derived from these verbs work the same way. Examples: socchiudere → socchiuso (to half-close → half-closed); riprendere → ripreso (to film → filmed).
  • with the auxiliary verb essere and in certain other special cases we make the agreement in the feminine and plural.

Anna si è decisa a trasferirsi a Roma.

Anna has decided to move to Rome.

Le hai prese, le mele?

Did you get them – the apples?

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