A meno che or almeno?

A meno always goes before che + a verb in the subjunctive and means the same as the expressions salvo che or eccetto che (unless). 

Arriveremo tardi al cinema, a meno che/salvo che non prendiamo un taxi.

We'll arrive late at the movie theater, unless we/if we don't take a taxi.

Anna non saprà mai la verità, a meno che/eccetto che non gliela dica tu.

Anna will never know the truth, unless you tell her.

Almeno has a different meaning and is used as follows:

  • To introduce a qualification of what has just been said, often as an equivalent of quanto meno or per lo meno (at least, at any rate).

Farà bello, almeno/quanto meno fino a domani.

The weather will be fine, at least until tomorrow.

Anna non tornerà a Milano, almeno/per lo meno così dicono.

Anna will not return to Milan, at least that's what they say.

  • To substitute the expression come minimo (at least).

Ho corso almeno/come minimo cinque chilometri.

I've run at least five kilometers. 

Compra almeno/come minimo un litro di latte.

Buy at least a liter of milk.

Note: a meno che (unless) is usually followed by non (no, not), which only reinforces the meaning of the expression, rather than negating the sentence.

Partiremo domani per la montagna, a meno che non piova.

We will leave for the mountains tomorrow, unless it's raining.

Non gli chiederò scusa, a meno che non mi implori.

I will not apologize to him unless he begs me.

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