Concessive clauses (although, despite, even though, etc.)

Concessive clauses are used to refer to a situation that occurs or a fact that is true despite what is said in the main clause. They're introduced by various conjunctions.

Nonostante sia a Milano, Anna non ha visto Toni.

Although she's in Milan, Anna has not seen Toni.

Anche se (even though), nonostante (although), malgrado (despite) and benché (although) are followed by a conjugated verb:

  • Anche se (even though) is followed by a verb in its standard indicative (i.e. not subjunctive) form.

Anche se è malato, Ruggero è andato al lavoro. 

Even though he is sick, Ruggero went to work.

  • Nonostante (although, despite), malgrado (despite) and benché (although) are followed by a verb in the subjunctive.

Nonostante faccia più freddo, possiamo mangiare ancora fuori.

Although it is colder, we can still eat outdoors.

Benché piova, è una splendida giornata.

Although it's raining, it's a beautiful day.

Pur (despite) and per (due to) are followed by the gerundio (“-ing” equivalent) and an infinitive respectively:

Pur essendo tardi, riusciamo a vedere il film dall'inizio.

Despite being late, we managed to watch the movie from the start.

Per essere così economico, non ci si immagina sia di qualità.

You wouldn't think it would be high-quality, due to being so cheap.

Sebbene (although) can be followed by a verb conjugated in the subjunctive or (in the case of certain verbs) a past participle.

Sebbene sia stato ammesso, non ha voglia di seguire il corso.

Although he has been accepted, he doesn't want to take the course.

Sebbene distrutto, ha studiato per tre ore.

Despite being exhausted (literally “although exhausted”), he studied for three hours.

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