Se (if) followed by the past perfect subjunctive

Reminder: se (if) is used to express a hypothesis or a condition. 

Se non rientri in orario, chiamo la polizia. (se + presente o futuro → presente o futuro) 

If you don't get home on time, I'm calling the police. (se + simple present / future → simple present / future) 

Se non rientrassi in orario, chiamerei la polizia. (se + congiuntivo imperfetto → modo condizionale)

If you didn't come home on time, I'd call the police. (se + imperfect subjunctive → conditional)

The construction se (if) + past perfect subjunctive + past conditional is used when imagining the consequences in the past of something that didn't happen.

Se fossi uscito in orario, non avrei perso il treno. (sottinteso: Sono uscito in ritardo e ho perso il treno.) 

If I'd left on time, I wouldn't have missed the train (implied: I left late and I missed the train).

Se avesse fatto caldo, sarei uscito. (sottinteso: Non ha fatto caldo e non sono uscito.)

If it had been warm out, I'd have gone out (implied: it wasn't warm out and I didn't go out).

The construction se (if) + past perfect subjunctive + present conditional is used when imagining the present consequences of something that didn't happen.

Se non avesse piovuto, non avrei i capelli bagnati. (sottinteso: Ha piovuto e ora ho i capelli bagnati.) 

If it hadn't rained, I wouldn't have wet hair (implied: it rained and now my hair is wet).

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