The past participle

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The past participle

The past participle is formed by adding the following endings to the verb stem:
•  é for verbs ending in -er
•  i for the majority of verbs ending in -ir
•  u with verbs like attendre, boire, voir, lire, etc.
•  it or is with verbs like écrire, dire, prendre, etc.
Aimer, écouter Aimé, écouté liked, listened
Finir, dormir Fini, dormi finished, slept
Attendre, boire, voir, lire Attendu, bu, vu, lu waited, drank/drunk, saw/seen, read
Écrire, dire, prendre Écrit, dit, pris wrote/written, said, took/taken
The past participle is used:
•  as an adjective, to modify a noun. It must agree with the noun in gender and number: adding e in the feminine, s in the plural, and es in the feminine plural forms.
Préférer un film préféré, une phrase préférée, des livres préférés a favorite film, a favorite phrase, favorite books.
Lire des livres lus, des histoires lues, un journal lu books (already) read, stories (already) read, a read newspaper.
•  to form compound tenses (passé composé, plus-que-parfait, passif, etc) with the auxiliary verbs être and avoir.
Elle a fini la bouteille, ils ont fini la bouteille finir, passé composé She finished the bottle, they finished the bottle (avoir auxiliary no agreement with the subject)
Ils étaient venus, elles étaient venues venir, plus-que-parfait They had come, they had come (être auxiliary agreement with the subject)

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