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There are three ways to express obligation:
- Tener que + infinitive: obligation or strong necessity.
El ascensor no funciona, tengo que subir por las escaleras.
The elevator doesn't work, I have to go up the stairs.
Tiene que hacer la compra.
He has to go shopping.
- Deber + infinitive: less strong obligation.
Debo terminar el informe antes de las siete de la tarde.
I must finish the report by 7:00 p.m.
Si estás enfermo, deberías ir al médico.
If you're sick, you should go to the doctor.
- Hay que (have to) + infinitive: obligation.
Cuando el semáforo está en rojo, hay que parar.
When the traffic light is red, we have to stop.
Hay que comer fruta y verdura cada día.
We have to eat fruit and vegetables every day.
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