Sentence structures for expressing simultaneous actions

Reminder: to express two actions that occur at the same time, we normally use the gerundio (-ing-form equivalent).

Carolina cocina escuchando música.

Carolina cooks while listening to music.

We can also express simultaneous actions with the following structures:

  • Al + verb in infinitive:

Al salir de casa me encontré un billete de 100 €. 

When I left the house I found a €100 note. 

  • Cuando + verb conjugated in the simple past, simple present or imperfect (indicative or subjunctive):

Cuando fui a Granada, visité La Alhambra. ir, pret. indefinido

When I went to Granada, I visited the Alhambra.

Cuando voy a la playa, me baño en el mar. ir, presente

When I go to the beach I swim in the sea. 

Cuando vaya, iremos a cenar. ir, subj. presente

When he goes, we'll go out to dinner. 

  • Mientras + conjugated verb:

Mientras me ducho, canto una canción.

While I shower, I sing a song.

  • Durante + noun:

Durante la fiesta, bailamos.

During the fiesta, we dance.

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