The past participles of regular verbs

Formation:

  • Verbs ending in -are-ato

Sognare  Sognato

To dream → Dreamed/dreamt

  • Verbs ending in -ere-uto

 Temere Temuto

To fear → Feared

  • Verbs ending in -ire-ito

 Pulire   Pulito

To clean → Cleaned

Usage:

  • As an adjective (descriptive word): in this case, it must agree in terms of both gender and number (singular or plural) with the word it refers to.

 I miei amici sono indignati.

My friends are outraged.

Ci sono alcune gatte addormentate nel mio giardino.

There are some (female) cats asleep in my garden.

  • Compound tenses (verb constructions comprising more than one word) of verbs in the past and future are formed using the auxiliary verbs essere (to be) and avere (to be).

Abbiamo preparato una festa a sorpresa.

We have prepared a surprise party.

Note: the subject of the sentence only agrees in gender and number with essere (to be), not avere (to have).

La ragazza era partita quando siamo arrivati.

The girl had left (literally, “was left”) when we arrived.

Ieri Chiara ha mangiato al ristorante.

Yesterday Chiara ate at the restaurant.



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