The past participles of sein and werden

Reminder: the past participle is used to form the perfect tense (among other things).

Anna ist Ärztin geworden.

Anna has become / became a doctor.

The verbs sein (to be) and werden (to become) have irregular past participles:

sein en
ich bin gewesen
du bist gewesen
er/sie/es ist gewesen
wir sind gewesen
ihr seid gewesen
sie/Sie sind gewesen
werden en
ich bin geworden
du bist geworden
er/sie/es ist geworden
wir sind geworden
ihr seid geworden
sie/Sie sind geworden

Note: both sein and werden take the auxiliary verb sein in the perfect tense.

Ich bin noch nie in Paris gewesen.

I have never been to Paris.

Mein Bruder ist gestern 5 Jahre alt geworden.

My brother turned 5 yesterday (literally “My brother has become 5 yesterday”).

  • The past participle geworden becomes worden in the passive.

Das Geld ist verbraucht worden.

The money has been spent.

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